Sabtu, 27 Juli 2013

US – China Relations : US Policies Towards China “Threat”

United States of America and China has the unique relations. Both of the nations are the superpower with strong influence in economy, military, politic and foreign policies towards the international world. Day by day the competition of both nations looks stronger from all aspects. US and China compete from all aspect to widen their interest and influence towards the nations in the world. The competition between US and China has been starting since several years ago. The history recorded that US and China used to have an inharmony relationship. This paper will talk about the history of US and China relations, the aspects that US and China competing, US’ foreign policy to face China “threat” and the author will also try to predict US and China relations in the future.

US and China has the long journey to strengthen their influence in the world. In 1949-1969, US government has against the communist idealism for 20 years. As recorded in history, US was one of the superpower nations beside Uni Soviet in World War I and II. US war against Uni Soviet as the centre of communist idealism. China as one of the communist nations alike Uni Soviet was also the nation that US had war with. US as the founder nation of democracy tried to spread its idealism through all part of the nations, but because of the communist idealism, US’s way was not really smooth at that time. US had the idealism war against Uni Soviet and China. After Uni Soviet dissolved, the communist steer is hold by the China as the biggest communist nation up to now. It clearly seen that China has the uneasy way to face US in idealism war in the past and also in the future. Still in 1949-1969, US created the foreign policy which prohibited all US citizens to visit China. This policy has brought even worse relationship between both nations. 

In 1972, President Nixon visited China for the first time. This visit has brought a closer and smoother relationship between US and China. US started to be more cooperative with China thought at that time both nations still did not have the official and diplomatic relation. It was a bit challenging to create a diplomat relationship with China, because at that time US was close with Taiwan. 5 years later in 1975, US and China started the diplomat relations. US officially broke the relations with Taiwan thought US still unofficially communicate with the people from Taiwan. US and China also started to discuss and concern more towards several issues in the world. South Korea and North Korea peace is still one of the concerns between US and China. There are still several issues that discussed by both nations, where China also starts to be more active in world organization. These steps taken have made the relations between US and China closer.

The advancement relations between those nations are not really that smooth and easy though. There are still many unresolved issues until now that have made US and China relations getting hotter. Military, economy, human rights, and political power are the issues that still remain unsolved until now. First the military issue, In 2004 and 2006 China Defense White Paper has described the modernzation and revolution in military aspect. China also increase the military fund and has spent $50 - $80 billion. Besides the more sophisticated weapon, China also has spent much money to develop the nuclear. As one of the biggest nation in the world, China has the program called People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to train the citizen intensively in order to protect the nation. To train and develop PLA, China works together Russia and other several nations. There are several purposes behind China’s action toward the military. First, China’s military concern is to stabilize the military power that is dominated by US. China believes that they have the right to prevent and defense themselves from the worst condition like war that can happen anytime. Second, Taiwan as one of the most conflict country with China has also become the concern why China develop their military. China military is designed and increased to be the threat for Taiwan. Third, China wants to freedom itself from any kind of intervention form US. US has the foreign policy that also concerns to intervene other nations’ problem, and China feel burdened with this policy, and want to free themselves.

Behind all the purposes of China’s military development, it can be seen that US is one of the strongest reason. It has become the threat for US, and US government has thought to take action to stop the threat. US plans to increase the military fund in order to keep balancing their military power. Increasing military fund is necessary to keep maintaining US’ role in war against the terrorism, because the threat for US does not only come from China but also form many nations and group. US plan does not really run smooth though, especially in the economy crisis situation. Many citizens argue that US government does not need to increase the military, but need to more focus on economical problem that need to be solved. This condition has made the situation more complicated, because in one side US needs fund to solve the problems inside their nation while in other side US also needs fund to keep maintaining their military power and influence.

Second, US’ dilemma still not stops here, because in economy US also needs to compete with China. According to US Congressional Research Service, since declaring the free trade in 1979, China has become the fastest-growing economy with annual gross domestic product (GDP) grew nearly 10 % in 2012. China as the world’s second largest economy has growth rapidly through the merchandise exporter, foreign investment, manufacturer, and creditor nations. Seeing this fact, China is not really an easy and amateur rival for US. Industries in China have growth and developed rapidly, and China has become the threat to US, because the cheap products from China have invaded US market. It threatens the US industry, because the US product cannot lead their own market that has been taken care by China product. China’s economical policies also challenge US. The protectionist industrial policies in China have made this nation invade other nations product, while they are also protecting their home industries. Thought China’s industry has developed very fast and very well, China has the problem with the environmental and pollution issues as the effect from the industrial development. This problem has been an attention for nations around the world remaining China as one of the nations with the worst air pollution in the world. Thus, in 2006 China started to focus on working by using the environmental safety product and pay more attention toward the environmental issue.

To face the economical challenge from China, US needs to take several actions to do. What US can do is discussing more about the free trade which is the heart of China economical growth. The more fair free trade needs to be discussed, not only for both nations interest, but also for other nations that also affected with both nations economical growth. In 2008 economy crisis in the world has affected US and China economy, thought both nations still remain the nations with the highest GDP in the world. The economical development will still continue in the future, and it is not impossible that the economical competition between both nations will get hotter to be debated.

Third, the human right issue is also one of the concerns from both nations. China is well known as the nation that has quite bad atmosphere for the human right issues. US also takes part to criticize and protest against the human right violation in China. US firstly started to criticize China because of the Tiananment incident (1989) where China government violent crackdown against the students demonstrators that has caused a lot of civilian victims. Since then, US has been hardly criticizing the human right violation in China. Issuing report to the international world and intervening the human right policies in China are the actions that has created more serious criticize towards the government of the China. Finding that US is not alone who war against the human rights issues, China started to maintain the progress by its feeding program, educating program, clothing program and also giving medical program. Those programs has slowly become the betterment for China human rights reports, thought the human rights policies that might be harmful for citizens still found until now. One child policy is a debatable policy that is still being debated until now and has attracted other nations attention.

Fourth is the political issue between US and China in the international world. As the biggest and superpower nations, both nations have their own interest. The political issues from both nations also relate with the political issues among other nations. Korea political issues are the hottest issues in the world where US and China have the important role in this issue. US as the close alliance ofSouth Korea has less or more influences the foreign policy in that country. China as the communist country is also the alliance of North Korea. Thus the issue between South Korean and North Korea is not only issues between those two nations but also relate to US and China interest. There are still many political issues such as Suriah issue, Middle East issue and also the lawsuit among other nations that strongly affected by US and China. It can be seen that China is always in the opposite position in almost all political issues in the world. This situation sometimes has made the relation between those two nations worse.

The action that taken by US government is to solve political issue with China is by strengthening the position and the role of the US government in the world. US needs to make sure that they still have strong role in order to boost their interests in several countries. Developing better relations with other nations is the real action that taken under US government.

Those issues above are the issues that relate to the America and China relation. Started from the very beginning in the history, both countries did not really have a good relations seeing the tough competition to boost their own interest in the world. Though year by year their relation has become closer and better, there are still many issues remain unsolved that can make relation between two countries worse. It is not only the US government, but also many of the American citizens think that China as the most threatening and toughest rival and enemy in the world. To protect its own interest, America has strengthen their position by maintaining the policies in economy, military, human rights and also political. The author believes that it is not impossible in the future US-China relation can become worse in the future, considering many issues between two countries that remain unsolved. War is not impossible will happen in the future also. However, war is not a really good solution to solve any kind of issues in the world. Thus, the author hopes that US and China are able to maintain their relation wisely, because anything happen between those nations will also affect other nations in the world. As the biggest and superpower countries US and China need to strengthen their position to make a betterment in the world and not only think about their own interest.


Carter, A., & Burkeley, J. (n.d.). America's Strategic Response To China's Military Modernization. Harvard Asia Pacific Review , 50-52.

Friedberg, A. (2005). The Future of US - China Reltions. International Security , 1-3.

History of US-China. (2013). Retrieved July 10, 2013, from

Morrison, W. (2013). China’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States. Congressional Research Service , 1-2.


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